The species name is derived from Maguan County, Yunan Province, where the type locality is located. Figure 8A—I. Betacixius sparsus Tsaur and Hsu in Tsaur et al. Posterior vagina pattern as shown in Figure 8H, I. Prior to this study, nothing has been reported on the host plants of Betacixius. Nonetheless, we found these planthoppers most commonly in grass, shrubs, or on bamboo and tree leaves, at elevations up to m. Unfortunately, there is no knowledge of what plants these planthoppers really feed on, except that B.
Fagaceae , which might be the plant on which it feeds. Based on published data and our field surveys, the distribution of Betacixius is mostly restricted to the Oriental parts of China, Japan, and Vietnam, with B. Distribution records of the species from genus Betacixius 1 B. The regional studies on Betacixius in China are not equally efficient at finding species.
To date, 23 species are known from China, of which about half that number 12 species are known from Taiwan and only 12 species have been described from southern mainland China, which is much broader and more variant in ecological complexity compared with Taiwan. Therefore, we believe that additional comprehensive field surveys will find that the diversity of Betacixius in mainland China is doubtlessly richer.
We are grateful to the specimen collectors for their hard work in the field collections. ZooKeys 1— National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Zookeys v. Published online Aug 6. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Yan Zhi: moc. Corresponding author: Xiang-Sheng Chen moc. Received Jan 16; Accepted Jun 1. XML Treatment for Betacixius bispinus. XML Treatment for Betacixius flagellihamus. XML Treatment for Betacixius latissimus. XML Treatment for Betacixius maculosus. XML Treatment for Betacixius maguanensis. XML Treatment for Betacixius sparsus.
Keywords: Female genitalia, Fulgoroidea , morphology, Oriental region, taxonomy. Introduction Betacixius is a small genus established by Matsumura for 23 species in the subfamily Cixiinae Hemiptera , Fulgoromorpha , Cixiidae , with B. Materials and methods The morphological terminology and measurements follow Bourgoin and Bourgoin et al. Type species. China, Japan, Vietnam. Key to species of Betacixius 1 1 Forewing with markings 2 — Forewing without any markings 21 2 Forewing with a large ocellate marking in apical half 3 — Forewing without ocellate marking in apical half 6 3 Forewing with an oblique, brown band extending from clavus across middle of corium B.
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Betacixius bispinus Keywords: Animalia , Hemiptera , Cixiidae. Figure 1. Material examined. Supplementary description.
China Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan. Betacixius flagellihamus Keywords: Animalia , Hemiptera , Cixiidae. Figure 2.
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Host plant. China Guizhou. Keywords: Animalia , Hemiptera , Cixiidae. Figure 3. Figure 4. Type material. China Yunnan. Betacixius maculosus Keywords: Animalia , Hemiptera , Cixiidae.
Figure 5. China Taiwan. Figure 6. Figure 7. Betacixius sparsus Keywords: Animalia , Hemiptera , Cixiidae. Figure 8. China Guangxi, Taiwan. Discussion Prior to this study, nothing has been reported on the host plants of Betacixius. Figure 9. Acknowledgements We are grateful to the specimen collectors for their hard work in the field collections. Footnotes revised from Fennah ; Zhang and Chen References Bourgoin T.
Forewing with an oblique, brown band extending from clavus across middle of corium. Endosoma of aedeagus with one spine, hook-shaped Zhang and Chen : figs 22, Periandrium of aedeagus apically with one nearly straight and one arched processes.
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Forewing with an oblique band extending from stigma passing through its middle part. Frons with a pallid spot at centre of lateral margins; mesonotum testaceous. Frons without such spots; mesonotum, except scutellum, castaneous-piceous. Forewing with a spot near sutural margin of clavus near union of claval veins, no oblique dark band at this level extending into corium.
Officials see the factories as bringing their provinces jobs, prestige and VAT receipts, which in China are collected when the car leaves the factory. And if WM succeeds, the officials associated with it will earn the sort of kudos that can elevate them a long way in the party hierarchy. They are having their cars made by contract manufacturers, which is less capital-intensive but also yields less control over the process.
Mr Shen, a car-industry veteran, says he has had 1, engineers dedicated to working on electric vehicles for the past four years.
That is because such innovations could be reverse-engineered. Mr Shen says he expects the best electric-car companies to start building their own batteries eventually. Those have hitherto been sourced from giant companies like CATL , a Chinese firm which holds a large share of the global electric-vehicle-battery market. Big car companies would never source their engines from third parties; integrating them closely into the design and production process improves overall performance.
Mr Shen expects electric cars to be no different. The factory, built in just eight months, is designed to make , cars a year. Meanwhile, Volkswagen is refitting one existing Chinese factory and building a brand new factory to produce , EV s a year. It expects to produce 1m electric cars a year in the country by and to have manufactured All this ambition suggests that there may be a bust on the way, and that the EV startups may suffer badly from it.
WM is hoping to turn those particular lemons, grown through overzealous and incontinent state aid, into lemonade. It expects many of its smaller competitors to go bust over the next few years, especially now that the subsidy programme has been stopped. That will free up talented engineers. A more rationally delivered advantage that the state is providing for WM and others hoping to sell EV s in China is charging infrastructure. This makes buyers more confident.
The state also facilitates the roll-out of advanced technical features for the benefit of the public at large.
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Even if WM fails, China is set to be a large market for EV s long before any other country, and that will benefit the industry as a whole. This opens up the possibility that Chinese supply chains will eventually be used to provide components for the rest of world, as with smartphones. It also suggests that such a strategy could see Chinese EV makers capture a lot of the value from vehicles made elsewhere. Their simplicity, compared with cars powered by internal combustion, makes EV s easier to manufacture in sections.
Because there are no cooling fluids to pump around the vehicle, no drivetrain to run through the floor of the cabin, and no engine block poised to crush occupants in the event of a crash, the top and the bottom of the car can easily be separated out and produced independently.
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It would be a complete reversal of the situation today, where Chinese car companies need Western firms to supply the most valuable components. That may end up being an advantage for the Chinese industry on a global scale. This article appeared in the Technology Quarterly section of the print edition under the headline "Electric leapfrog".